February / March 2015 - Vol. 78

Raniero Cantalamessa preaching in Rome

Raniero Cantalamessa and the Call for a New Evangelization  

Part 1 Proclaiming the Kerygma in the Power of the Holy Spirit

By Sue Cummins

Note: The following article is adapted from the thesis, Raniero Cantalamessa and the New Evangelization: Proclaiming the Kerygma in the Power of the Holy Spirit, which was submitted to the School of Theology of Sacred Heart Major Seminary, Detroit, Michigan USA, December 2014. Sue Cummins works full time for the Archdiocese of Detroit’s Department of Evangelization and Catechesis as Regional Catechetical Coordinator.


A simple Franciscan friar made a decision over thirty years ago to leave his academic post and dedicate his life to preaching. Since that time he has impacted the lives of thousands of men and women all over the world with his preaching, teaching and writing. Father Raniero Cantalamessa’s writings, sermons, and the example of his life offer wisdom, inspiration, and practical guidance for those seeking to respond effectively to the call for a new evangelization.

According to Cantalamessa, the fundamental rule of evangelization is to proclaim the gospel message (the kerygma) in the power of the Holy Spirit.[i] He asserts that the kerygma should be the essential content of preaching and that “preaching in the power of the Holy Spirit” should be the method of proclamation.[ii]

This paper will explore the importance of Cantalamessa’s message for the new evangelization and consider the advice that he gives to those who are called to teach and preach the word of God. Cantalamessa’s emphasis on the importance of preaching the kerygma in the power of the Holy Spirit, while being firmly rooted in the Tradition of the Church, is a prophetic word for our times. Cantalamessa’s plentiful references to Sacred Scripture and to the writings of the Church Fathers provide an entry point to the rich traditions of the Church. His message is indispensable to the success of those who hope to make a significant contribution to the new evangelization.

The Call for a New Evangelization

Evangelization has been at the heart of the Christian mission since the time of Jesus and the first Apostles. Jesus’ last words before ascending to heaven consisted of a mandate to evangelize: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Mt 28:19).[iii]

Throughout his career as a preacher Cantalamessa has consistently spoken of the need for a new evangelization. At the opening address of the 2005 International Alpha Conference Cantalamessa spoke about a “presence-absence of Jesus in our time.” He pointed out that in secular society many books, television shows, and movies exploit Jesus for the purpose of lucrative gain, while people of faith do not always recognize his importance. Cantalamessa said that Christ is present in our culture, but he is often absent or even excluded from the lives of many who call themselves Christians.[iv] Many people believe in some kind of a Supreme Being who created the world and that there is some kind of life beyond death, but they do not have Christ as the object of their faith: “Sociological surveys point to this fact even in countries and regions of ancient Christian tradition, like the one where I was born in central Italy. Jesus is practically absent in this kind of religiosity.”[v]

Cantalamessa often makes reference to sociological surveys; there are many statistics available that back up and illustrate his thesis. Sherry Weddell makes some very compelling observations about research that has been done on religious belief in the United States.[vi] Based on an analysis of data available through the Pew Forum on Religious and Public Life (2008) she points out that religious identity in the United States is very fluid: “53 percent of American adults have left the faith of their childhood at some point; 9 percent have left and returned.”[vii] The data shows that those who identify themselves as unaffiliated are the “fastest-growing religious demographic” in the United States – one in every six Americans.[viii] Of self-identified Catholics only 48 percent are sure that it is possible to have a personal relationship with God.[ix] Through her work with Catherine of Siena Institute[x] Weddell has had an opportunity to meet with and interview thousands of Catholics from across the United States, many of them serving as parish and diocesan leaders. She and her colleagues have asked many of them to describe their “lived relationship with God.” Weddell points out that many of the Catholics who are asked to describe their relationship with God are unable to do so:

The majority of Catholics in the United States are sacramentalized but not evangelized. They do not know that an explicit personal attachment to Christ personal discipleship is normative Catholicism as taught by the apostles and reiterated time and time again by the popes, councils, and saints of the Church.[xi]

Weddell’s experience of working with Catholics across the United States has led her to the conclusion that “few Catholics have ever heard of the kerygma . . . and even fewer know what the kerygma contains or have heard it preached clearly.”[xii]

The statistics relating to youth and religious belief are even more sobering. The National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) that was conducted between the years 2003 and 2005 examined the spirituality of adolescents in the United States. The findings of this study were reported by Christian Smith in a book he co-authored with Melinda Lundquist Denton.[xiii] Smith observes that most of the adolescents interviewed in the study said that they believed in God and they identified their faith as being the faith of their parents.[xiv] Further questioning revealed that many who identified themselves as religious, when asked about specific beliefs, said that they did not have any. Of those who said they held specific beliefs, very few were able to describe them. [xv] Most teens interviewed did not believe in a Triune God; they did not embrace the gospel of the incarnate Jesus, Son of God, crucified and raised from the dead. Thomas V. Sanabria used the data from NSYR to compare the religious beliefs held by Catholic youth to those held by Protestant youth. His analysis indicates that Catholic youth were less grounded in the basic tenets of Christianity than their Protestant counterparts.[xvi]

Smith contends that “the de-facto dominant religion among contemporary U.S. teenagers is what might be called ‘Moralistic Therapeutic Deism (MTD).’” [xvii] Smith describes the basic tenets of this MTD “religion” as a creed that consists of the following tenets of faith:

1. A God exists who created and watches over life on earth.

2. God wants people to be good, nice, and fair to each other.

3. The central goal of life is to be happy and to feel good about oneself.

4. God is not particularly involved in one’s life except when needed to resolve a problem.

5. Good people go to heaven when they die.[xviii]

Further analysis of the data from the National Study of Youth and Religion as it relates to Hispanic youth, along with the results of further study and supplementary interviews, shows that Hispanic teens are not immune to MTD. Fourteen out of the sixteen Hispanic youth who were interviewed in supplemental interviews held to the tenets of MTD, confirming the findings of the National Study. [xix]

Kenda Creasy Dean revisited the results of the National Study of Youth and Religion.[xx] She writes that the evidence of the NSYR indicates that not only teenagers, but also many congregations of adults that call themselves Christian are “almost Christian”:

After two and a half centuries of shacking up with “the American dream,” churches have perfected a dicey codependence between consumer-driven therapeutic individualism and religious pragmatism. These theological proxies gnaw, termite-like, at our identity as the Body of Christ, eroding our ability to recognize that Jesus’ life of self-giving love directly challenges the American gospel of self-fulfillment and self-actualization.[xxi]

Dean recognizes the need for “nurturing a bilingual faith” that includes an ability to communicate with those who are converted and well-versed in Christianity, and an aptitude for speaking with those who are not well versed in the Christian faith. She is concerned that many churchgoers have not heard the Gospel presented to them in a way that they can make it fully their own. She sees a need for youth leaders and other church members to learn how to communicate in the language of global postmodern secular society in order to translate and effectively pass on the truths of our Christian faith.[xxii]

While most of the statistics cited thus far are related to religion in the United States, it is worth noting that Europe is even further down the path of secularization. In his essay “Evangelization of Europe? Observations on a Church in Peril,” Peter Hunermann cites some sobering statistics that illustrate the decline of numbers of those involved in the Church in Europe, and the shrinking numbers of men and women who identify themselves as Christian.[xxiii] He points out that behind the decline in numbers there is an even more important shift in the worldview held by the greater part of the population. Hunermann presents the thesis that the crisis of the Church in Europe is related to the “discontinuity” that exists between the tenets of modernity and the Church.[xxiv] He makes a valid point that one of the reasons for the crisis in the Church is the drastic change that has come about in the attitudes and the practices of modern society.

Cultural Trends and Challenges to Evangelization

Cantalamessa is very aware of the challenges that modern society presents to evangelization. In a series of Advent sermons given to the papal household in 2010,[xxv] he identifies three cultural trends of our modern age that contribute to the state of the present-day Church: scientism, secularism, and rationalismall leading to relativism. In his first Advent sermon he outlines four main theses of scientism:

1. Science, and in particular cosmology, physics and biology, are the only objective and serious ways of knowing reality.

2. This way of knowing is incompatible with faith that is based on assumptions which are neither demonstrable nor falsifiable.

3. Science has demonstrated the falsehood, or at least the lack of necessity of the theory of God.

4. Almost the totality or at least the great majority of scientists are atheists.[xxvi]

Cantalamessa points out that, contrary to the fourth tenet, many scientists believe in God, often as a result of their scientific analysis. Still, the influence of atheistic scientists on modern thought should not be underestimated.[xxvii] Of particular concern to Cantalamessa is the denial of the importance and uniqueness of human beings in the created world that leads to a trivialization of their role and of the centrality of Jesus Christ as God made man. He sees non-believing scientists, biologists and cosmologists in particular to be in competition with one another to see who can go furthest in “affirming the total marginality and insignificance of man in the universe and in the great sea of life itself.”[xxviii]

The second Advent sermon deals with the problem of secularism. Cantalamessa explains that the words secular and secularization can be used in a variety of ways and that their connotations are not always negative:

Secularization is a complex and ambivalent phenomenon. It can indicate the autonomy of earthly realities and the separation between the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of Caesar and, in this sense, not only is it not against the Gospel but finds in it one of its profound roots; however it can also indicate a whole ensemble of attitudes contrary to religion and to faith; hence, the use of the term secularism is preferred. Secularism is to secularization what scientism is to scientific nature and rationalism to rationality.[xxix]

Secularism with its focus on the here and now diverts the attention of men and women away from the importance of eternal truths. It results in a life that is oriented around the material world where spiritual realities are ignored or denied. There is no reference to a transcendent God who is creator and sustainer of all life; there is no fear of a final judgment or anticipation of eternal happiness that surpasses any happiness that could be known in this life. Life revolves around experiencing pleasure and avoiding pain.

According to Cantalamessa, the nineteenth century saw a decline in the belief in eternal life: “Little by little, suspicion, forgetfulness and silence fell on the word eternity. Materialism and consumerism did the rest in the opulent society, making it seem inconvenient to still speak of eternity among educated persons.”[xxx] Today even Christians have lost focus on spiritual realities; those Christians who do believe in eternal life rarely speak of it. Many have a very vague or distorted picture of what Sacred Scripture teaches about the spiritual world and the life that awaits them beyond the death of their bodies. Cantalamessa recognizes the negative effect that secularism and the lack of concern about eternal life has on Christian faith:

The fall of the horizon of eternity, or of eternal life, has the effect on Christian life of sand thrown on a flame: it suffocates it, extinguishes it. Faith in eternal life is one of the conditions of the possibility of evangelization. “If for this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are the most pitiable people of all,” exclaims St. Paul (1 Corinthians 15:19).[xxxi]

There are different versions of secularism. The NSYR aptly illustrates the current version of secularism that is prevalent in the United States. This version recognizes the existence of God and looks to some kind of life after death, but it fails to recognize the possibility that entering paradise may require more than being a “nice person.” The need to repent of sin and to live according to the gospel is not recognized. There is a lot of confusion about moral living; most of life is taken up with concern for fulfilling temporal needs and desires.[xxxii]

Cantalamessa ends his Second Advent sermon with the reminder that there is life after death and, whether they realize it or not, all men and women will live forever. He unabashedly points out that it is important to understand that the nature of eternal life will not be the same for all: “the passage from time to eternity is not straight and equal for all. There is a judgment to face and a judgment that can have two very different results, hell or paradise.”[xxxiii] Many who call themselves Christians have not really understood and embraced the truth about God and what is necessary for salvation. Many do not even call themselves Christians. Regardless of religious beliefs or lack of belief, all will one day stand before the Lord Jesus Christ awaiting judgment. All will live forever, but not all will live forever in the joy of full communion with their creator.

It is important, therefore, to realize the high stakes involved in the call to evangelize. Motivation to evangelize wanes when there is no proclamation of the biblical truths regarding heaven and hell. Ralph Martin points out that the watering down of these biblical truths led to a decline of evangelization after Vatican II. He says that these truths need to be stated clearly in order to motivate those called to evangelize:

The reasons for the command [to evangelize] namely, that the eternal destinies of human beings are really at stake and for most people the preaching of the gospel can make a life-or-death, heaven-or-hell difference need to be unashamedly stated. This is certainly why Jesus often spoke of the eternal consequences of not accepting his teaching being lost forever, hell and did not just give the command to evangelize.[xxxiv]

This does not mean that the evangelist always confronts secularism with arguments laced with fire and brimstone. The love and mercy of God, the saving grace of Jesus, and the joy of life in the Holy Spirit are biblical truths that need emphasis in our day.

The message of the existence of a loving God who longs for a relationship with human beings who were created in love is an attractive and compelling message. Cantalamessa points out that there is an inner longing for life beyond this life that is intrinsic in all human beings. Presenting a positive view of life after death and living a life that is permeated with resurrection hope is an important aspect of evangelization: “As for scientism, speaking also of secularism, the most effective answer does not consist in combating the contrary error, but in making shine again before men the certainty of eternal life, appealing to the intrinsic force that truth possesses when it is accompanied by the testimony of life.”[xxxv]

Cantalamessa addresses the obstacle of rationalism in his final Advent sermon of 2010.[xxxvi] The problem of rationalism is a distorted view of reason that makes reason supreme, higher even than God and spiritual realities that cannot be contained by reason. Rationalism insists that actions and beliefs should be governed by reason alone, and that reason is the primary source of knowledge and truth. Cantalamessa is not denying that reason is important; he recognizes that as Christians we are called to use our reason and that reason is not in conflict with faith. His point is that reason cannot reign supreme over God and that without recognition of the power and sovereignty of God, reason falls short.

Cantalamessa echoes St. John Paul II, who wrote about the relationship between faith and reason in his encyclical letter Faith and Reason, Fides et Ratio, promulgated in September 1998. In this encyclical St. John Paul II states that there is “no reason for competition of any kind between reason and faith: each contains the other, and each has its own scope for action” (FR, 17). Reason has its place but reason alone is not sufficient:

The world and all that happens within it, including history and the fate of peoples, are realities to be observed, analyzed and assessed with all the resources of reason, but without faith ever being foreign to the process. Faith intervenes not to abolish reason's autonomy nor to reduce its scope for action, but solely to bring the human being to understand that in these events it is the God of Israel who acts. This is to say that with the light of reason human beings can know which path to take, but they can follow that path to its end, quickly and unhindered, only if with a rightly tuned spirit they search for it within the horizon of faith. (FR, 16)

The artificial attempt to separate faith and reason takes away from the God-given capacity of human beings to understand the truth about the world and its Creator.

Cantalamessa calls our attention to an address that John Henry Newman gave at Oxford University in December of 1831, entitled “The Usurpations of Reason.”[xxxvii] Newman pointed out several instances where reason had been allowed to rule outside of the appropriate scope of its authority. For Cantalamessa, the title of Newman’s address, “The Usurpations of Reason,” illustrates an understanding of the negative effects of distorted rationalism:

In a note of comment on this address, written in the preface to its third edition in 1871, the author explains what he intends with such an expression. Understood by usurpation of reason is “a certain popular abuse of the faculty, viz., when it occupies itself upon religion, without a due familiar acquaintance with its subject-matter, or without a use of the first principles proper to it. This so-called Reason is in Scripture designated 'the wisdom of the world'; that is, the reasoning about Religion based upon secular maxims, which are intrinsically foreign to it. [xxxviii]

In Newman’s scenario reason takes an “imperialistic” role over religious beliefs; all actions and beliefs must submit as subjects to reason. Cantalamessa proposes an additional political metaphor, that of isolationism, as an example of an alternate way in which rationalism distorts the use of reason:

Newman's analysis has new and original features; he brings to light the so to speak imperialist tendency of reason to subject every aspect of reality to its own principles. One can, however, consider rationalism also from another point of view, closely connected with the preceding one. To stay with the political metaphor used by Newman, we can describe it as the attitude of isolationism, of reason's shutting itself in on itself. This does not consist so much of invading the field of another, but of not recognizing the existence of another field outside its own. In other words, in the refusal that some truth might exist outside that which passes through human reason.[xxxix]

Cantalamessa is referring here to the widespread tendency to recognize as real only that which can be proven by the scientific method; anything beyond the scope of scientific proof is ignored or denied.

Another aspect of the usurpation of reason relates to morality. Newman points out that the moral principles of human beings are not necessarily tied up with their intellectual principles. A very intelligent person who possesses a great ability to exercise reason might lead a deplorable moral life.[xl] Reason can be used as a tool for religious purposes, and reason may sometimes lead to religious truths, but religious truths do not need to be established by rational proof the way that the laws of physics might be subjected to the scientific method.[xli] Religious beliefs are not subordinate to reason as their imperial ruler. According to Fides et Ratio, when we are dealing with God, the truth about God, and the way of life that God wants for his people, we are dealing with something that goes beyond reason:

On the basis of this deeper form of knowledge, the Chosen People understood that, if reason were to be fully true to itself, then it must respect certain basic rules. The first of these is that reason must realize that human knowledge is a journey which allows no rest; the second stems from the awareness that such a path is not for the proud who think that everything is the fruit of personal conquest; a third rule is grounded in the “fear of God” whose transcendent sovereignty and provident love in the governance of the world reason must recognize. (FR, 18)

Cantalamessa combines the elements of Newman’s analysis by showing that the cultural trends of scientism, secularism, and rationalism lead to another obstacle to evangelizationrelativism. There are different forms of relativism. Protagorean relativism holds that what is perceived is true to the person who perceives it and that truth does not exist independently of what the perceiver says is true. There are no objective standards that can be used to determine truth; knowledge and sense perception are relative to the perceiver. A saying attributed to the Sophist Protagoras describes the mentality of many modern men and women: “Man is the measure of all things; of things that are that they are; and of things that are not that they are not.”[xlii]

The lack of conviction among so many people that there exist objective standards of truth makes it difficult to appeal to natural law or to revelation as a measure of truth. The danger is that individuals without a conviction that truth exists will not search for truth; they may not concern themselves with the existence of God and God’s will for their lives. In a Christmas address given to the Roman Curia in December, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI spoke about the importance of keeping the search for God alive: “As the first step of evangelization we must seek to keep this quest alive; we must be concerned that human beings do not set aside the question of God, but rather see it as an essential question for their lives. We must make sure that they are open to this question and to the yearning concealed within it.[xliii]

Acutely aware of the difficulty of the task that the Church faces in responding to the call to the new evangelizationwithin and withoutCantalamessa, like Newman, advises his listeners to maintain hope and joy. He points out that it is important to be aware of the challenges but expedient to avoid negativity or despair and to recognize the many signs of God’s presence in the world.[xliv] He points to the many positive things happening in the Church: the outpouring of charisms; the increased participation of the laity in parishes and lay movements; the Catholic organizations and individuals who are dedicated to the care of the poor; those who have been martyred for their faith; the “holy” and “learned” Popes who have served the Church for the past century and a half; the desire for unity and the progress made in ecumenical relations.[xlv] Cantalamessa speaks openly about the difficulties in the world and in the Church, but he also provides encouragement and his message is full of hope. He offers many insights into the content and the methods that are necessary for the success of the new evangelization. The next chapter will explore Cantalamessa’s message about the content of the Christian message and the need to proclaim the kerygma, the good news of salvation in Jesus.

Sue Cummins
Sue Cummins is a member of Word of Life Community and Bethany Association. She lives in Detroit, Michigan USA and teaches as part-time faculty at Sacred Heart Major Seminary.  Susan has a concentration in spirituality with a focus on the work of St. Ignatius and St. John of the Cross. She worked for fifteen years as part of an international mission team giving retreats, training, and spiritual direction to leaders of Christian communities in Central America, Mexico, Spain, Europe, and the Middle East.  She has over ten years of experience working with youth as senior staff with University Christian Outreach (UCO) and Youth Works Detroit and as a high school teacher.  Susan is fluent in Spanish.  She worked as director of a bi-lingual Religious Education Program at St. Gabriel Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit from 2005 to 2012.  Sue has recently been hired to work full time for the Archdiocese of Detroit’s Department of Evangelization and Catechesis as Regional Catechetical Coordinator


[i] Raniero Cantalamessa, The Mystery of God’s Word, trans. Alan Neame (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1994), 54. Tanslated from Chi ha parlato nel Figlio: Il mistero della parola di Dio (Milan: Editrice Ancora , 1984).

[ii] Cantalamessa, “The Preaching Ministry,” The Ashbury Journal Vol. 63: No. 1 (2008): 33-51, accessed June 18, 2014, http://place.asburyseminary.edu/asburyjournal/vol63/iss1/3.

[iii] All biblical citations are from the New Revised Standard Version unless otherwise indicated.

[iv] Cantalamessa, “Faith Which Overcomes the World,” Opening Address for the International Alpha Conference, June 2005 (London: Alpha International, 2005), 2.

[v] Ibid., 3.

[vi] Sherry Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples: The Path to Knowing and Following Jesus (Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington, IN, 2012).

[vii] Ibid., 19.

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Sherry Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciple, 44.

[x] Website for Catherine of Siena Institute, accessed December 3, 2014, http://www.siena.org/.

[xi] Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples, 46.

[xii] Ibid., 67.

[xiii] Christian Smith and Melinda Lundquist Denton, Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

[xiv] Smith and Denton, Soul Searching, 122.

[xv] Ibid., 132-33.

[xv] Sherry Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples: The Path to Knowing and Following Jesus (Our Sunday Visitor: Huntington, IN, 2012).

[xv] Ibid., 19.

[xv] Ibid.

[xv] Sherry Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciple, 44.

[xv] Website for Catherine of Siena Institute, accessed December 3, 2014, http://www.siena.org/.

[xv] Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples, 46.

[xv] Ibid., 67.

[xv] Christian Smith and Melinda Lundquist Denton, Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

[xv] Smith and Denton, Soul Searching, 122.

[xv] Ibid., 132-33.

[xvi] Thomas V. Sanabria, “Personal Religious Beliefs and Experiences,” in Pathways of Hope and Faith Among Hispanic Teens: Pastoral Reflections and Strategies Inspired by the National Study of Youth and Religion, ed. Ken Johnson-Mondragon (Stockton, CA: Instituto Fe y Vida, 2007), 41-79. For example 43% of Hispanic and 47% of white Catholics definitely believed in life after death compared to 53% of Hispanic Protestants and 58% of white Protestants. Of Hispanic Catholic youth 70% believe in a judgment day; white Catholics score lower at 66% compared to Hispanic Protestants at 92% and white Protestants at 82%. When asked about reincarnation, 15% of the Hispanic Catholic youth in the study believed in reincarnation as did 14% of white Catholics; this compares to 5% of Hispanic Protestants and 8% of white Protestant youth.

[xvii] Smith and Lundquist, Soul Searching,166.

[xviii] Ibid., 162-63.

[xix] Johnson-Mondragon, Pathways of Hope, 73.

[xx] Kenda Creasy Dean, Almost Christian: What the Faith of Our Teenagers is Telling the American Church (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).

[xxi] Ibid., 5.

[xxii] Creasy Dean, Almost Christian, 112-30. See also a paper written by Edwin Hernandez with Rebecca Burwell and Jeffery Smith, “A Study of Hispanic Catholics: Why Are They Leaving the Catholic Church? Implications for the New Evangelization,” in The New Evangelization, 109-142.

[xxiii] Peter Hunermann, “Evangelization of Europe? Observations on a Church in Peril,” in Robert J. Schreiter, ed., Mission in the Third Millennium (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2001), 57-80.

[xxiv] Ibid., 65.

[xxv] Cantalamessa’s Advent sermons and other sermons and articles written by him can be found on his website, accessed December 3, 2014, http://www.cantalamessa.org.

[xxvi] Cantalamessa, “1st Advent Sermon 2010,” accessed August 27, 2013, www.zenit.org/en/articles/father-cantalamessa-s-1st-advent-sermon-2010).

[xxvii] Ibid.

[xxviii] Ibid.

[xxix] Cantalamessa, “2nd Advent Sermon, 2010.”

[xxx] Cantalamessa, “2nd Advent Sermon, 2010.”

[xxxi] Ibid.

[xxxii] Smith and Lindquist, Soul Searching, 163.

[xxxiii] Cantalamessa, 2nd Advent Sermon, 2010.

[xxxiv] Ralph Martin, Will Many Be Saved? What Vatican II Actually Teaches and Its Implications for the New Evangelization (Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012), 204.

[xxxv] Cantalamessa, 2nd Advent Sermon, 2010.

[xxxvi] Cantalamessa, “3rd Advent Sermon, 2010,” accessed April 5, 2014, http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/father-cantalamessa-s-3rd-advent-homily-2010.

[xxxvii] John Henry Newman, “The Usurpations of Reason,” accessed April 5, 2014, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/oxford/sermon4.

[xxxviii] Cantalamessa, 3rd Advent Sermon, 2010. Newman’s quote is from Oxford University Sermons, London, 1900, 54-74.

[xxxix] Cantalamessa, 3rd Advent Sermon, 2010. Newman’s quote is from Oxford University Sermons, London, 1900, 54-74.

[xl] Newman, “The Usurpations of Reason.

[xli] See Fides et Ratio 42: “Reason in fact is not asked to pass judgment on the contents of faith, something of which it would be incapable, since this is not its function. Its function is rather to find meaning, to discover explanations which might allow everyone to come to a certain understanding of the contents of faith.”

[xlii] Peter A. Angeles, The Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy (Harper Collins: NY, 1992), 261.

[xliv] Cantalamessa, Third Advent Sermon, 2012. “‘I Bring You Tidings of Great Joy’: Evangelizing Through Joy,” accessed April 15, 2014, http://www.cantalamessa.org/?p=2049&lang=en .

[xlv] Ibid.

(c) copyright 2015  The Sword of the Spirit
publishing address: Park Royal Business Centre, 9-17 Park Royal Road, Suite 108, London NW10 7LQ, United Kingdom
email: living.bulwark@yahoo.com